Moving on from “should we do it?” (with the answer to most real-world scenarios being “yes, and as a bonus it can help block a lot of spambots“), here’s how to restrict several Internet services — Nginx, Apache, Postfix, and Dovecot — to TLSv1.2 or newer.
As usual, these are not complete guides for any of those servers; I’m assuming you already have them working fine (including TLS encryption), and just want to disable any TLS protocols lower than v1.2. (If you need to add TLS to a non-TLS server, see instructions for Nginx, Apache, Postfix, and Dovecot.)
In each virtual host’s server section — or, even better, if you’re using Let’s Encrypt, in /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf or its equivalent –, add the following (or replace any existing ssl_protocols entry):
ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
Restart Nginx, and test it on SSL Labs. You should get something like this1:
(Note: if you’re using a very old version of Nginx, it may not accept the “TLSv1.3” parameter and refuse to start; in such a case, remove it — or, better yet, upgrade your system. 🙂 )
Similarly to Nginx, you can add one of the following to each Virtual Host, or to the global HTTPS configuration (typically in /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf), or, if using Let’s Encrypt, to /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf :
SSLProtocol +TLSv1.2 +TLSv1.3
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1 -TLSv1.1
Right now, they’ll do the same thing: allow TLSv1.2 and v1.3 only. Personally, I like the second version (which disables older protocols) better, for two reasons: 1) it’ll work even with some ancient Apache version that doesn’t recognize “TLSv1.3”, and 2) when future TLS versions are added, they’ll be enabled, making it more future-proof.
Again, you can test the new configuration on SSL Labs.
Add the following to /etc/postfix/main.cf (replacing any equivalent entries, if they exist).
TLSv1.0, used not only for HTTPS but also for secure SMTP, IMAP, etc., has been around for a while — 1999, in fact –, and, while not “hopelessly broken” like SSL 2 and 3 are, there have been many successful attacks/exploits against it in the past two decades, and while most implementations (in terms of both servers and clients) have been patched to work around those, there may always be another one just around the corner. Also, TLSv1.0 came from a time where it was desirable to support as many different ciphers as possible, which means that, by default, some ciphers later found to be insecure may still be enabled.
Therefore, the end of TLSv1.0 has been talked about for a while, and, indeed, the main browser vendors — Google, Mozilla, Apple, and Microsoft — have announced that they’ll deprecate TLSv1.0 (and 1.1, which is little more than a revision of 1.0) by early 2020.
Now, until a few days ago I still had TLSv1.0 enabled on my servers (including Nginx, Postfix and Dovecot); my belief then being that some encryption was always better than no encryption, and besides we were mostly talking about public websites, that didn’t ask for user credentials or anything. Furthermore, any modern browsers/email clients default to secure protocols (TLSv1.2 or better), so there would never be, “in real life”, a situation where important/sensitive data (say, me logging on to my own mail server, or to one of my WordPresses) was being transmitted in an insecure way.
On the other hand… doesn’t the above mean that, “in real life”, nobody will really be using TLSv1.0 “legitimately”? Doesn’t it mean that setting up TLSv1.2 as a minimum will have no adverse consequences?
So I investigated it a little:
in terms of browsers/clients, requiring TLSv1.2 or above means: 1) no Internet Explorer before version 11; 2) no Safari before 6.x; 3) no default Android browser before Android 4.4.x (but those users can still use Chrome or other non-default browsers). (You can check this out on SSL Labs). I don’t have a way to check email clients that old, but you can assume that anything released after the browsers just mentioned will be OK;
in terms of my own server logs (mostly Nginx, but also Postfix, in terms of opportunistic encryption), apparently, only spambots and such are using TLSv1.0; any “legitimate” email servers use TLSv1.2 or 1.3. The same thing with my websites — any TLSv1.0 entries in my logs are always from some bot (and not one for a “well-known” search engine), not actual visitors. 1
In short: you can probably move to requiring TLSv1.2 or above now (and, indeed, I’ve done so since a few days ago), unless you’re in some very peculiar situation — maybe your site needs to be accessed by users of a company whose IT policy includes not using software newer than 20 years old? Or you have a CEO who’s always refused to upgrade his beloved Symbian phone, but who’d flip out if he couldn’t access your company’s webmail with it? 🙂 Otherwise, my advice is: go TLSv1.2 and don’t look back.
However, and since this post is already quite long, I’ll leave the specific instructions for disabling TLS before 1.2 in Nginx, Apache, Postfix, and Dovecot for the next one…
Some time ago, I noticed something like this on a site (not mine)’s rating on SSL Labs:
According to SSL Labs’ test, that little P means:
(P) This server prefers ChaCha20 suites with clients that don’t have AES-NI (e.g., Android devices)
Naturally, my curiosity was piqued, and a bit of investigating followed…
First (and briefly), the theory:
both AES and ChaCha20 ciphers are thought to be equally secure.
many modern CPUs provide hardware acceleration for AES, in which case it’s faster…
… however, if the CPU doesn’t accelerate AES, then ChaCha20 is faster.
Therefore, setting a web server (or any other kind of server, such as IMAP or SMTP, but those are outside this article’s scope) to use either option all the time means that some clients won’t have the optimal cipher(s) (in terms of performance) for their device. It won’t probably be noticeable in 99% of cases, but, hey, I’m a geek, and geeks optimize stuff for fun, not just for real-world performance. 🙂
Fortunately, as the SSL Labs test shows, it’s possible to configure a server to use/prefer one cipher for non-hardware accelerated devices, and another cipher (or, more precisely, a list of preferred ciphers) for the rest.
(For the curious, the selection process works like this: if the client’s preferred cipher is ChaCha20, then the server assumes it’s a device without hardware AES and uses that. If the client’s top cipher is anything else, then the server uses its own cipher list.)
This guide shows how to do it in Nginx, using Let’s Encrypt certificates. I’m using an Ubuntu 19.04 server, but any relatively recent Nginx should work, as long as you’re using OpenSSL 1.1.0 or newer, or LibreSSL. If your distro still provides only OpenSSL 1.0.x or older by default, you can always compile a newer version to a separate directory, and then compile Nginx to use it: here are instructions for OpenSSL 1.1.x or LibreSSL.
This is actually relatively simple, though some specific distros/servers may require some other changes:
1- Give Nginx a list of ciphers that doesn’t have ChaCha20 in first place (you need to specify some AES ciphers first). The list I’m using (currently specified in /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf , since I’m using Let’s Encrypt) is:
And then access the site with some of your devices, noting what ciphers they use. For instance, both my (2015) i7 laptop and my (2016) ZenFone 3 Android phone use AES (yes, apparently the Snapdragon 625 chip includes AES acceleration), but a 2013 Nexus 7 tablet and a 2015 iPad Pro (Safari, in this case — all other examples used Chrome) went for ChaCha. This shows that everything’s working correctly — the devices that specifically want to use ChaCha are indeed using it, while the rest aren’t. And, yes, this means that the very same browser (in this case, Chrome on Android) has different cipher preference defaults depending on the hardware it’s running on.
This post should be titled “How to get a 100% score on SSL Labs (Nginx, Let’s Encrypt) as of April 2018“, since SSL Labs‘s test evolves all the time (and a good thing it does, too.) But that would be too long a title. 🙂
As we’ve seen before, it’s relatively easy to get an A+ rating on SSL Labs. However, even that configuration will only give a score like this:
Certainly more than good enough (and, incidentally, almost certainly much better than whatever home banking site you use…), but your weirdo of a host can’t look at those less-than-100% bars and not see a challenge. 🙂
First, note that all of the following will be just for fun, as the settings to get 100% will demand recent browsers (and, in some cases, recent operating systems/devices), so you probably don’t want this in a world-accessible site. It would be more applicable, say, for a webmail used by you alone, or by half a dozen people. But the point here isn’t real-world use, it’s fun (OK, OK, and learning something new). So, let’s begin.
Getting that perfect SSL Labs score:
For this example, I’ll be using a just-installed Debian 9 server, in which I did something like:
apt -y install nginx
echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian stretch-backports main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/stretch-backports.list # if you don't have this repository active already
apt -y install python-certbot-nginx -t stretch-backports
(The reason for the above extra complexity is the fact that the default certbot in Debian Stretch is too old and tries to authenticate new certificates in an obsolete way, but there’s a newer one in stretch-backports.)
I also created a simple index.html file on /var/www/html/ that just says “Hello world!”. Right now, the site doesn’t even have HTTPS.
So, let’s create a new certificate and configure the HTTPS server in Nginx:
Testing it on SSL Labs, it gives… exactly the same bars as in the image above, but with an A rating instead of A+. Right, we need HSTS to get A+ (and currently certbot doesn’t support configuring it automatically in Nginx), so we add this to the virtual host’s server section:
(Note: remove “includeSubDomains;” if you have HTTP sites on any subdomain. Also, HSTS makes your site HTTPS-only, so you can’t use it if you want to keep an HTTP version — in which case you can’t get better than an A rating.)
This upgrades the rating to A+, as expected, but the bars still didn’t change. Let’s make them grow, shall we?
It’s already at 100%, so yay. 🙂
Just disable any TLS lower than 1.2. In this case, edit /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf and replace the ssl_protocols line (or comment it and add a new one) with:
WARNING: any change you make to the file above will affect all virtual hosts on this Nginx server. If you need some of them to support older protocols, it’s better to just comment out that option in that file, and then include it in each virtual host’s server section.
EDIT: actually, it turns out that ssl_protocols affects the entire server, with the first option Nginx finds (first in /etc/nginx.conf, then in the default website (which possibly includes /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf)) taking precedence. So just choose whether you want TLS 1.0 to 1.2 (maximum compatibility) or just 1.2 only (maximum security/rating); if you need both, use two separate servers.
We’ve already created the new certificate with a 4096-bit key (with “—rsa-key-size 4096“, see above), and according to SSL Labs’ docs this should be enough… but it isn’t. After some googling, I found out that you also need to add the following option inside the server section in Nginx:
Since the default Nginx+OpenSSL/LibreSSL setting, either “X25519” or “secp256r1” (actually “prime256v1“), also lowers the score.
EDIT: again, ssl_ecdh_curve affects the entire server, so you can’t use different default curves for each virtual host. So I’d suggest (in /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf):
if you want the 100% rating, or:
otherwise. This one doesn’t affect compatibility, by the way; it’s just a question of the preferred order.
The certificate’s key size (4096 or 2048) is, like the certificate itself, specific to each virtual host.
For 100% here, you need to disable not only any old protocols, but also any 128-bit ciphers. I started from Mozilla’s SSL tool (with the “Modern” option selected), then removed anything with “128” in its name, then moved ChaCha20 to the front just because, and ended up with this line, which I added to /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf (replacing the current setting with the same name):
(This time, this setting can indeed be specified for each virtual host, though you’d need to comment it out in the file above (which affects all virtual hosts with Let’s Encrypt certificates) if you want to do so, otherwise they’ll conflict.)
As said near the beginning, this is not something you likely want to do (yet) for a production, world-accessible site, as it will require relatively modern browsers, and you typically can’t control what visitors use1. According to SSL Labs’ list, it’s not actually that bad: all versions of Chrome, Firefox, or Safari from the past couple of years are fine, but no Microsoft browser older than IE11 will work, nor will Android’s default browser before 7.0 (Chrome on Android, which is not the same thing, will do fine.) I’d suggest it for a site where you can “control” the users, such as a small or medium-sized company’s webmail or employee portal (where you, as a sysadmin, can and should demand up-to-date security from your users).
But the main point of this exercise was, of course, to see if I could do it. Challenging yourself is always good. 🙂 And if you can share what you learned with others, so much the better.
If you normally browse the web (and you don’t block ads), you’ve probably already seen hundreds, if not thousands, of advertisements for “VPNs” or “VPN software/subscriptions” — how you “need” one to have any kind of privacy, how “they”1 can track you everywhere if you don’t use one, and so on. And they’re usually not cheap. Interestingly, and probably because of some recent “revelations”, all those advertisements seem to focus on privacy or anonymity only.
But using a VPN can offer you something else: mobile security; namely, the ability to make your mobile devices “be”, on demand, part of your home network (or your server’s network, if you have, say, a VPS somewhere), no matter where you are, regardless of whether you’re using 3G/4G mobile data, or some random WiFi hotspot. Yes, even one with no encryption at all; it won’t matter. You can, absolutely, trust random open hotspots again; even their owner won’t be able to read or alter your traffic in any way. And you can do it for free, too (assuming you already have an always-connected Linux server); you just need to configure your own OpenVPN server, which you’ll be able to do by following this (hopefully accessible) guide.
(Yes, you read the title correctly. For extra fun, and to prevent this blog from being too focused on Ubuntu/Debian, this time I’ll be using Red Hat Enterprise Linux / CentOS (and, I assume, Fedora as well.) Later on, I may post a Debian-based version.)
Configuring a basic HTTP site on Nginx
(Note: if you already have a working HTTP site, you can skip to the next section (“Adding encryption…”))
Yes, the post title mentions an “existing” website, which I believe will be the case in most “real world” situations, but installing a new one is actually very easy on CentOS1. First, do:
yum -y install epel-release; yum -y install nginx
Then create a very basic configuration file for the (non-HTTPS) site, as /etc/nginx/conf.d/mysite.conf :
Then, of course, create the /var/www/mysite directory (CentOS doesn’t use /var/www by default, but I’m far too used to it to change. 🙂 ) If you’d like, create an index.html text file in that directory, restart nginx (“service nginx restart” or “systemctl restart nginx“, depending on your system’s major version), and try browsing to http://mysite.mydomain.com . If it works, congratulations, you have a running web server and a basic site.
Adding encryption to the site (not using Let’s Encrypt):
Second, edit the site’s configuration file (in the “starting from scratch” example above, it’s “/etc/nginx/conf.d/mysite.conf“), and copy the entire server section so that it appears twice on that text file (one after the other). Pick either the original or the copy (not both!), and, inside it, change the line:
listen 443 ssl http2;
(Note: the “http2” option is only available in Nginx 1.9.5 or newer. If your version complains about it, just remove it, or upgrade.)
This should be enough — restart Nginx and you should have an HTTPS site as well as the HTTP one.
And what if you want to disable HTTP for that site and use HTTPS only? Just edit the same configuration file, look for the server section you didn’t change (the one that still includes “listen 80;“), and replace the inside of that section with:
(replacing “mysite.mydomain.com” with yours, of course.)
Answer the questions it asks you: a contact email, whether you agree with the terms (you need to say yes to this one), if you want to share your email with the EFF, and finally if you want “No redirect” (i.e. keep the HTTP site) or “Redirect” (make your site HTTPS only).
And that’s it (almost — see the next paragraph) — when you get the shell prompt back, certbot will already have reconfigured Nginx in the way you chose in the paragraph above, and restarted it so that it’s running the new configuration. You may want to add “http2” to the “listen 443 ssl;” line in the configuration file (it’ll probably be the default someday, but as of this post’s date it isn’t), and don’t forget your options for improved security and security headers.
Only one thing is missing: automatically renewing certificates. Strangely, the certbot package configures that automatically on Ubuntu, but not on CentOS, from what I’ve seen (please correct me if I’m wrong). The official Let’s Encrypt docs recommend adding this (which includes some randomization so that entire timezones don’t attempt to renew their certificates at precisely the same time) to root’s crontab:
(Note: It’s possible to use Let’s Encrypt to create ECDSA certificates, but as of this writing you have to do most of the work manually (creating a CSR, etc.), and you lose the automatic renewal, so for the moment I suggest using RSA certificates. I hope this changes in the future.)
SPF, or Sender Policy Framework, is a way for domain owners to say: “these are the email servers my domain sends mail from; anyone else is attempting to impersonate me.” These days, a lot of email services implement it in some way (both for receiving and sending email), and, if you administer your own server, it’s quite easy to implement, as we’ll see.
There are actually two parts to SPF: configuring it for your domain (so that your outgoing emails have a better chance of being accepted and emails impersonating your domain have a better chance of being refused), and configuring your email server to check whether incoming emails come from an SPF authorized server or not. Without further ado:
1- Configuring SPF for your domain’s outgoing mail:
This is actually done in DNS, not in the email server. Simply add a TXT record for your domain, with something like this:
There are other configuration parameters, such as getting the servers from the domain’s MX record (add “mx“), and copying another domain’s authorized servers (“include:otherdomain.com“). And, of course, if you only have one server sending mail, you don’t need two “a:” entries.
Pay special attention to the “-all” part at the end: that instructs other servers to refuse any email apparently coming from your domain that isn’t authorized for it. That should ideally be the final configuration, but if you’re doing this for the first time you may want to change it to “~all“, which means “softfail”: it suggests to the other side that the mail is probably not legit, but that it shouldn’t refuse it outright because of it. After testing it for a while, if you see no problems then you can change it to “-all“.
2- Configuring SPF checking for incoming mail in Postfix:
I’ll assume you already have a working Postfix server (hopefully already using TLS encryption, hint hint), and that you want to respect any “-all” configurations (see above) in incoming mail — in other words, if a domain says “all my mail comes from server X, refuse anything else” and you receive an email purportedly from that domain, but from a server Y, it’s refused (for “~all“, it’d generate a warning).
First, install pypolicyd-spf. On a Debian-based system, the package (as of this writing) still has its old name, so enter the following:
apt install postfix-policyd-spf-python
Edit /etc/postfix/master.cf, and add:
policyd-spf unix - n n - 0 spawn
Then edit /etc/postfix/main.cf, and look for the “smtpd_recipient_restrictions” section. That section will probably begin by accepting mail from your networks and from authenticated users, then rejecting non-authorized relaying, possibly followed by some white- or blacklists, and maybe a couple of filters, finally ending with “permit“. Before that “permit“, add:
(note the comma at the end; without it, Postfix wouldn’t read the rest of that section.)
IMPORTANT: while you’re still in testing, it may be a good idea to add “warn_if_reject” to the beginning of the previous configuration line. With it, Postfix will still log SPF failures, but won’t actually reject an email because of it. When you’re certain everything is fine, you can then remove that prefix (and then reload Postfix, of course).
Add also the following to that configuration file, outside of any section:
policy-spf_time_limit = 3600
And you’re done. Reload or restart Postfix, and check your logs to see if everything is working as intended.
Note that other tools, such as SpamAssassin, may also use SPF to weigh whether an incoming mail is more or less likely to be spam. That, however, is unrelated to the Postfix configuration above, which does a binary “block/don’t block”.
Like any web server, Nginx logs all accesses/hits by default, and if you have some kind of log-based analytics tool (such as AWstats) you probably have it already set to ignore hits from the host itself (usually by skipping both localhost (127.0.0.1) and the server’s public IP address). If you don’t do so, then your statistics will probably be inflated (“wow, my newly created site is surprisingly popular!“), and, unless your site has many regular users, the IP address at the top of the “visitors” table will almost certainly be your own. Local hits can come from several culprits: for instance, some web software such as WordPress or MyBB use special URLs as a form of cron replacement, and also you may have yourself be monitoring your site in some way (such as, in my case, benchmarking a particular URL and MRTGing the access speed).
OK, so your analytics don’t show it anymore — but what about the log files themselves? Maybe you don’t want a large percentage of them being composed of internal hits (especially in the case of those “let’s measure the average response speed for 100 hits every 5 minutes” benchmarks, which for that site made up some 95% of its access logs…). Maybe it even interferes with some other tools you’re using, such as something like DenyHosts or Fail2ban, to detect some abuse patterns, even after whitelisting your external IP. How about having the option not to log them at all? 1
On Nginx, this is actually pretty easy to do.
1- in the Nginx main configuration file, add the following:
Replacing YOUR_EXTERNAL_IP with… you can probably guess. 🙂
Important: if your virtual hosts’ configurations are in another directory that is “included” from nginx.conf, take care to add the above before the include lines (e.g. include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf) . Otherwise, the virtual hosts won’t have the “$notlocal” variable defined yet, and Nginx won’t start because of it.
2- for each virtual host where you want to stop logging local hits, edit the access_log line, changing it from something like:
Note the addition of “combined“. “combined” is the default format for Nginx access logs, so specifying it isn’t usually needed, but apparently if you want to specify the “if” condition, it must come after the log format option (otherwise, I guess Nginx thinks you want a log format of “if“, which of course doesn’t exist and will prevent the server from starting.)
That it! Restart Nginx, and enjoy your much cleaner/smaller logs.
Encrypted disks and/or filesystems are nothing new on Linux; most distributions, these days, allow you to encrypt some or all your disk partitions, so that they can only be accessed with a password. In this tutorial, however, we’re going to add a new encrypted partition to an existing system, using only the command line. I’ve found that tutorials on the web seem to make this issue more complex than it actually is, so here’s mine — hopefully it’ll be easier than most.
In this guide, we’ll be making a few assumptions. First, as said above, it’ll be an existing system, to which we’ve just added a new disk, /dev/sdb . Adapt to your situation, of course. If you’re not using an entire disk, just create a new partition with fdisk (e.g. /dev/sdb1) and use it instead. Second, we’ll have the machine boot with the disk unmounted, then use a command to mount it (asking for a passphrase, of course), and another to dismount it when you don’t need it. The obvious usage of such a partition is for storing sensitive/private data, but theoretically, you could run software on it — as long as you don’t automatically attempt to start it on boot, and don’t mind keeping it mounted most or all of the time, which perhaps defeats its purpose: if it’s mounted, it’s accessible.
Some time ago, I wrote about how to set up Nginx to get an A+ rating on SSL Labs (focusing specifically on an ECDSA certificate, but you can certainly achieve the same with a (more common) RSA certificate). SSL Labs' test is very comprehensive, warning the user of most potential problems, including SSL/TLS implementation bugs (update your software!), misconfigurations, problems with the certificate itself, etc.. But there is another similar tool, securityheaders.io, which focuses on something different: security-related headers. Such headers are sent by the web server (such as Nginx or Apache) and affect browsers' security in several ways, unrelated to encryption, protocols or the certificate used (these are tested by SSL Labs).
For more details about those headers, I'd suggest you navigate to securityheaders.io itself, and then check your site in it, then follow the links for each suggestion. Meanwhile, if your site uses Nginx, here's a "quick and dirty" guide for getting an A rating (and, yes, I'll mention what you'd need for an A+ rating, and also why I choose not to try for one).
Forces TLS (don't use if you still need to provide HTTP); prevents mixed content warnings. NOTE: again, this is not the most secure setting; see below.
You're probably wondering about the last two settings. I choose to send referring information to other sites for a simple reason: I like to see where my own visitors come from (I don't sell, share or monetize that in any way, it's just for curiosity's sake), and I'm a firm believer in treating others as I want to be treated. If you don't care about that, you may want to change this to "no-referrer-when-downgrade", or "strict-origin".
As for the Content Security Policy, anything more "secure" than the above prevents (or at least makes it a lot more headache-inducing) the use of inline scripts and/or external scripts, which would mean no external tools/scripts/content (or at least a lot of work in adding every external domain to a list of exceptions), and a lot of hacking on software such as WordPress (seriously: add the setting, but then remove the "unsafe-*" options and see what stops working...). You might use the most paranoid settings for an internally developed, mostly static site, but I fail to see the point. So, this and the paragraph above are the reasons for an A rating, instead of an A+.
Come on, everyone knows MRTG, right? That venerable tool for graphing router traffic, among other things. If you’ve worked as a sysadmin and/or network admin in the past, you’re probably familiar with it since decades ago, although these days you probably use something more modern, such as Cacti, Zabbix, etc..
The thing is, I still use MRTG a lot, old though it is, and even though there are many newer alternatives, since MRTG has, to me, one huge advantage. Well, two, in fact, though they really amount to one thing: ease of use. MRTG is simple: it doesn’t need to run as a daemon, it’s just a binary you can run through cron. And MRTG is versatile: unlike other tools that really, really want to work with network traffic, or system memory, or processor usage, or something else (preferably to be read through SNMP, or a local agent), MRTG just wants one or two values, and it’ll call the first one “input” and the second “output”. And those values can come from anywhere.
Just to show how easy it is: an MRTG configuration file usually looks something like this:
The key part is that “Target” line which, you’ll notice, is between backticks, meaning that it’ll actually execute a script. And what does it expect from that script? Simple: just four lines:
A number (which it’ll think of as “input”, and which will typically be graphed in green)
Another number (for “output”, to be graphed in blue)
The system’s uptime (on Linux, uptime | cut -d ” ” -f 4-7 | cut -d “,” -f 1-2 typically provides it in the format MRTG wants, although it’s really just text)
The system’s name (just use uname -n)
That’s it! If you only want to graph a single value, just add “noi” or “noo” to the Options line (and you can then replace the first or second line, respectively, with “echo 0” on your script). You can also make it not show the uptime and name with the “noinfo” option. And, finally, the “gauge” option makes MRTG graph current values, while, without it, it adds the current value to the previous one (like, for instance, a “bytes transferred” counter). Both have their uses.
Now, you’re probably thinking: “yeah, yeah, I’ve known how to use MRTG for decades (and these days I use XYZ instead; who even uses MRTG in 2017?!?); why are you writing about something so basic and, well, old?” The answer is, again, 1) that it’s ridiculously easy to use (just create a script to write 4 lines), and 2) that it’s not for routers (or network interfaces) only; it can be used for so much else, and it can typically be done in minutes. So I’ll just show a few examples of stuff I already do with it on my servers. Each example will be just the shell script; the MRTG configuration file for these is virtually always the same thing, except for axis legends, labels, etc..
Note: all of the following need the “gauge” option.
“Steal” time on a VPS
# Graphs "steal" time on a VPS. A high value means you need to complain to your
# VPS provider that the host your server is on is overbooked, or there's
# another customer abusing it (mining Bitcoins? :) )
NUM=$((3 + ($RANDOM % 3)))
rm -f /tmp/steals.txt
top -b -n $NUM | grep Cpu | cut -d ',' -f 8 | tr -d ' ' | cut -d 's' -f 1 > /tmp/steals.txt
TOTAL=0 ; for i in `cat /tmp/steals.txt`; do TOTAL=`echo "$TOTAL + $i" | bc -l`; done
AVERAGE=`echo "$TOTAL / $NUM" | bc -l`
uptime | cut -d " " -f 4-7 | cut -d "," -f 1-2
Total size and number of emails in a Maildir
# Total size and number of mails in a Maildir
# total UNCOMPRESSED size of your mailbox, in MB, 2 decimal cases
# actual compressed size will probably be much lower; if you'd rather show it,
# just replace the following with a "du -ms /home/ptmail/Maildir | cut -f 1"
find /home/ptmail/Maildir -type f | grep drax | cut -d '=' -f 2 | cut -d ',' -f 1 > /tmp/sizes-ptmail ; perl -e "printf \"%.2f\n\", `paste -s -d+ /tmp/sizes-ptmail | bc` / 1024 / 1024"
# number of emails
find /home/ptmail/Maildir -type f | grep drax | wc -l
uptime | cut -d " " -f 4-7 | cut -d "," -f 1-2
System load (* 100) and number of processes
# Graph system load (multiplied by 100) and number of processes.
# Yes, this is trivial and uses mostly shell commands. :) It's just to show
# that "scripts" invoked by MRTG can be in any language (in this case, PHP),
# not just shell scripts. You could even use compiled C code, for instance.
$x = exec ("uptime | cut -d ':' -s -f 5 | cut -d ',' -f 1 | cut -d ' ' -f 2");
print $x . "\n";
system ("ps ax | wc -l");
system ("uptime | cut -d ' ' -f 4-7 | cut -d ',' -f 1-2");
system ("uname -n");
Average time per request of a URL
# Average time per request of the URL below. Run it locally to measure how fast
# your site and/or server is, or remotely to measure its network connection as well
# (though that would be less reliable; best use something like Pingdom)
# use "noi" for this one (hence the first "echo 0")
ab -c 4 -n 100 -k https://zurgl.com/ | grep "Time per request" | head -n 1 | cut -d ':' -f 2 | tr -d ' ' | cut -d '[' -f 1
uptime | cut -d " " -f 4-7 | cut -d "," -f 1-2
MySQL and MariaDB(note: for brevity, I’ll be referring to “MySQL” from now on, but everything here applies to both and, indeed, these days I use MariaDB exclusively on my own servers) are very popular as database servers, but in my experience are rarely properly configured to take advantage of the server’s resources. While I’m not a database administrator (DBA), as a sysadmin I often have to diagnose performance problems in servers I maintain, and MySQL is a common culprit; it seems that most MySQL DBAs are well-versed in SQL, but the my.cnf configuration file seems to be a mostly unexplored mystery to them: either it’s untouched from the default configuration (which is conservatively set to work on the barest of machines), or they limit the memory usage to some 3% of the server’s available RAM(!) 1, or else they go in the other direction and try to use more resources than are available.
Without, of course, attempting to be a full MySQL guide (or even a full optimization guide), this tutorial will provide a few guidelines, rules-of-thumb, and settings suggestions so that a MySQL non-expert can still make his/her server run a lot more smoothly.
A vital tool:
MySQLTuner is an essential tool for MySQL administration, and, indeed, you should run it on your MySQL system before any configuration changes (whether suggested here or not), and also after implementing them. Its results, however, can be a bit intimidating, and (as its documentation warns) its recommendations should never be implemented blindly 2.
So, *do* install and use MySQLTuner (and, by following this guide, you should be seeing a lot more “green” and less “red” in its results), but don’t blindly follow its suggestions without understanding their point.
Oh, and keep your MySQLTuner script mostly up-to-date (assuming you installed it from its site, instead of your distro’s packaging system); don’t just keep using the version you downloaded some 4 years ago. Software evolves, you know. 🙂
Apart from other “always-a-good-idea” settings that we’ll see later, the amount of memory you set MySQL to use is probably the most important configuration.
Before we begin: I still keep seeing co-workers (both at my job and the previous one) thinking of free memory as something that is desirable for a production server to have a lot of. They see a machine with, say, 90% of its RAM in use and get worried.
Guys and girls, Linux is not MS-DOS! (Really, you don’t have to obsess about freeing conventional memory anymore! 🙂 ) There’s such a thing as virtual memory, and also another thing called disk caching! Linux actually uses most of its free memory to cache disk access (and recent versions of top actually show that as still “available”, but for decades it said “cached”). Memory that’s truly free is simply being wasted (and a server with a large amount of it even after a week of uptime is a server that should have some of its RAM removed to be better used elsewhere).
Having more than half of a machine’s RAM as disk cache is certainly not as bad as having it unused/wasted, but it would have been far better to let applications (in this case, MySQL) actually, you know, use it. Which we’ll do here.
OK, end of rant. 🙂
So, what’s a good rule of thumb for how much memory to give to MySQL? I’d say 80% of the system’s unused RAM.
Note the “unused”. If the server just has MySQL on it, then, sure, give MySQL 80% of the free memory after loading up the OS. But if it runs other services (e.g. a web server, some other database, etc.), then see how much RAM you have after all of them are running, and give MySQL 80% of that.
An exception to this rule might be a very, very small database, say, with a single table with just a couple of entries, and rarely or never updated. In this case, giving it so much memory might be overkill… but in such a case, you wouldn’t be here reading an optimization guide, right?
(Note: there are other memory-related settings, such as join_buffer_size or innodb_log_buffer_size, but their defaults should be good enough. Also note that defaults may change (they’re usually increased) between MySQL/MariaDB versions, which is one more reason to keep your database server updated as much as possible.)
(Note 2: if you’re using very old versions of MySQL or MariaDB, it’s possible that some settings below don’t “exist” yet. If the server refuses to (re)start and complains about an unknown setting, simply remove it/comment it out. Better yet, start planning a software update…)
First, back up your database. Really. Nothing here should be dangerous, but better safe than sorry. And, if possible, try out these changes on a test machine before moving to the real, production one.
For extra fun, run MySQLTuner now and save the results (e.g. mysqltuner.pl > ~/mysql-pre-optimization.txt), so you can compare them later…
So, edit (after backing it up, of course) your /etc/my.cnf (or /etc/mysql/my.cnf in Ubuntu, or /etc/my.cnf.d/server.cnf in Fedora), and look for the [mysqld] section.
You can add the following entries to the end of that section, they’ll replace their settings if they’ve already been previously set.
If you’re using InnoDB (and, between it and MyISAM, you certainly should):
innodb_buffer_pool_size = MEM1
innodb_log_file_size = MEM2
innodb_buffer_pool_instances = NUMBER
MEM1 should be about 80% of your available RAM (see “About memory” above). You can specify it as a number followed by “M” for megabytes, “G” for gigabytes, etc.;
MEM2 should be one eighth (1/8) of MEM1. For example, for 1 GB of MEM1, set MEM2 to 128M;
NUMBER should be the number of gigabytes (rounded down) of MEM1. For instance, for 4 GB, set NUMBER to 4. Note that this value doesn’t have a unit (M, G, etc.)
If you’re not using InnoDB at all (why?), then don’t add any of the above, of course.
key_buffer_size = MEM3
If your databases are all InnoDB, then leave this value small (e.g. 4M), as the MySQL user tables and such are still MyISAM. If you have many and/or large MyISAM tables, on the other hand, set MEM3 to 25% of the available RAM (see “About memory” above), and reduce the InnoDB memory by that amount (see MEM1 above). If you have only MyISAM tables, then you can raise MEM3 to 50%-80% of available memory.
If you’re using Aria tables, the setting is aria_pagecache_buffer_size; follow the key_buffer_size recommendations.
I find the following settings to work pretty well in most cases (and MySQLTuner seems to agree):
query_cache_type = 0 # recommended to be off, these days
query_cache_size = 0
thread_cache_size = 128
table_open_cache = 2048
low_priority_updates = 1 # MyISAM only, but no harm
innodb_file_per_table = 1
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_flush_method = O_DIRECT
tmp_table_size = 64M
max_heap_table_size = 64M
And that’s it! Restart MySQL, and you should enjoy much better performance, both for MySQL itself and for the rest of the server.
As with most other internet services, Dovecot can be configured to use TLS encryption — and, unlike some others (such as web servers or SMTP servers), there’s little reason not to enforce it.
Like other recent TLS tutorials on this blog, this is, of course, not a full Dovecot guide — that would be far too complex for a blog post. Instead, it’s just focused on enabling/configuring TLS encryption. I’ll be assuming you already have Dovecot configured, and are able to access mailboxes on your server using an email client.
I’ll be focusing on IMAP only, not POP3 or anything else.
The server will be configured to require encryption, for both privacy and security reasons. I don’t know of any modern email client that doesn’t allow encrypted connections (and even then, you might work around it by configuring an encrypted tunnel, but that falls out of this post’s scope).
1. Getting a certificate
While I believe most modern email clients will support ECDSA certificates, such clients are not a known quantity like, say, web browsers are, so I suggest that you create an RSA certificate, unless you already have one whose Common Name (CN) matches your server’s public name (e.g. mail.domain.com). Dovecot versions 2.2.31 and newer support configuring alternative certificates so that you could support both kinds at the same time, but there’s probably little gain in doing that, since most clients will likely default to RSA anyway (and, unless you’re using Let’s Encrypt, certificates are not free).
So, put your certificate and private key in /etc/dovecot/. Let’s assume the certificate is called myserver-full.crt1, and the private key is myserver.key. You should protect the private key from any users on your server, so do, for instance,
I’m assuming your Dovecot installation has a basic configuration file in /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf, but the real “meat” of the configuration is in included files in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/. Your system may be slightly different, but I’m sure you can adapt. 🙂 Also, the numbers at the beginning of the file names may differ in your system.
This one isn’t really related to TLS, but it’s a good idea: edit /etc/dovecot/conf.d/20-imap.conf, and look for a line like this:
mail_plugins = $mail_plugins
and add to it (separated by a space):
After all, there’s no reason not to use compression here, and bandwidth (especially on mobile) is still precious.
Now, edit /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf, and add 2:
(The ssl_cipher_list line, besides setting secure defaults, sets the ChaCha20 protocol as the first one to be tried, since it’s considered one of the fastest and most secure. Note that it’ll require Dovecot linked to LibreSSL or OpenSSL 1.1.x to use that cipher, though Dovecot won’t complain if it doesn’t have access to it; it’ll just use the normal, secure defaults.)
If you don’t change anything else from the default configuration, the server will be listening on port 143 (IMAP) and port 993 (IMAPS). “But,” you ask, “isn’t standard IMAP unencrypted? I thought you were enforcing encryption…” Yes, but the standard IMAP port can be “upgraded” to TLS by entering the STARTTLS command, and email clients not only support that, but typically default to it (if not, just make sure you enable it). The server will refuse to authenticate any users on port 143 before they’ve “STARTTLSed”.
If you wanted to use only IMAP+STARTTLS, or only IMAPS, just edit /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-master.conf, look for the “service” configuration, and disable the one you don’t want. But I see no problem with keeping both enabled.
Whether it’s a web server, an email server (two, in fact, assuming you’re using one for SMTP and another for IMAP, as is common), or other types of applications, to have encrypted connections a TLS certificate1 is required. It can be self-signed (say, if you’ll be the only one needing to access that server), but browsers and email clients will complain (loudly!), therefore, if you want your server to be universally accessed, a “real” certificate is needed, so let’s show how to get one.
This recipe creates an RSA certificate (strongly suggested for, say, Postfix, since you can’t control what other email servers support, so you should go for the most common option); for web servers (accessed by standard browsers), an ECDSA certificate might be a good alternative.
A few notes:
There are alternatives (e.g. key sizes, etc.) for basically every parameter I’m using, but I’m not going into those. This is supposed to be as quick and easy as possible, after all.
Similarly, I’m not going into Let’s Encrypt; instead, I’m assuming a “normal” certificate authority such as Comodo. If you do use Let’s Encrypt, just use it to create the certificate instead of the “send the CSR to the certification authority” part.
The certificate (and server) will be compatible with most browsers and applications (email clients, etc.), but that “most” won’t include any Microsoft browsers on Windows XP (Firefox or Chrome on that abomination of an OS will still work).
Generating the key and the Certificate Signing Request (CSR):
The command will ask you for details about your server/company (location, etc.). You should fill in every field, although the only mandatory one is “Common Name” (CN), which must match your server’s public name (not necessarily the machine’s name, but the hostname people will type in the browser/email client, such as “zurgl.com” or “mail.something.com“. Note that a certificate for “domain.com” also includes “www.domain.com” (so don’t include the “www.” in the CN), but if the server is reached at “subdomain.domain.com“, then that’s what the CN needs to be.
Ordering and receiving the new certificate:
Now go to a certification authority (CA), order a new certificate, and when asked for a CSR, send them (usually you can just copy and paste it into a text entry window) that myserver.csr file.
If everything went well, then the CA should email you the new certificate in a short while. Typically they send you two files: the certificate itself, and a couple of “intermediate” certificates. Only the first is really needed, but I’ve had best results with concatenating your certificate (first) and the intermediate certs (last) into a single file, which you might call myserver-full.crt .
That file is, to all intents and purposes, your new certificate, and it’s ready to be used in application servers. You can use the same certificate for several services (e.g. an HTTPS website, an SMTP server, an IMAP server), as long as the hostname matches the certificate’s CN (so a certificate for “mail.myserver.com” won’t work for “www.myserver.com“, and vice-versa, but that’s because the names don’t match — not because they’re different services).
Adding TLS encryption (with your shiny new certificate) to internet services:
(Note: most of this post’s content originally appeared in a previous one. The difference is that that one refers to ECDSA certificates, while this one is about the older, more common RSA certificates.)
Although Postfix (and the SMTP protocol in general) can function without any kind of encryption, enabling TLS it can be a good idea in terms of both security and privacy, so let’s look at how it can be easily done.
We’ll actually be configuring two separate types of encryption:
Opportunistic encryption for regular SMTP (port 25), both incoming1 and outgoing2. “Opportunistic”, here, means that the server will ask for encryption and use it if the other side also supports it, but if it doesn’t then it’ll work without encryption. Although forcing it might sound tempting for security reasons, in reality many “smaller” servers around the world still don’t support it, so you would be unable to send or receive mail to/from those. Opportunistic TLS at least means that most “big” email services (e.g. Gmail) will communicate with you (and you with them) with encryption.
Mandatory encryption for the submission service (port 587). This is used by your own users (even if it’s just you) to send mail through your server, and typically has different restrictions (e.g. it’s authenticated, but on the other hand it can be used to send mail to the outside (unlike incoming port 25 which doesn’t, as that would make it an open relay)). Both the users’ authentication that would otherwise be in clear text, and the fact that only a limited number of users (your users, too) will be accessing that port through email clients (never other email servers that you don’t control) make forcing encryption here a no-brainer.
NOTE: naturally, this is not an exhaustive Postfix tutorial. I’ll be assuming you already have a working server, and just want to add TLS encryption to it. Also, some parts may not apply to your case.
1. Have/get a TLS certificate for your email host’s public name
If you don’t already have one, see how to create a new TLS certificate. We’ll be using an RSA certificate here (instead of going with ECDSA) since unlike, say, a web server accessed by standard browsers, you can’t control what other email servers support 3, therefore it’s best to choose the most common option. 4
Note that the certificate’s CN must match your email host’s public name (e.g. “mail.domain.com“). That will also probably correspond to (one of) the domain’s MX records.
2. Postfix configuration
Again, I’ll be assuming your non-TLS Postfix is already working fine.
Put your certificate and key in /etc/postfix (for instance). For this example, I’ll be calling them myserver-full.crt and myserver.key.
In /etc/postfix/main.cf, add the following lines:
# TLS configuration starts here
tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
# uncomment and edit the above if you're using a different "openssl" than the system's
# (in this case, LibreSSL)
# SMTP from your server to others
smtp_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/myserver.key
smtp_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/myserver-full.crt
smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/myserver-full.crt
smtp_tls_security_level = may
smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
smtp_tls_loglevel = 1
# SMTP from other servers to yours
smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/myserver.key
smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/myserver-full.crt
smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/myserver-full.crt
smtpd_tls_security_level = may
smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1
# TLS configuration ends here
And in /etc/postfix/master.cf, assuming you already have a “submission” section a bit like this:
submission inet n - n - - smtpd
Add to that section:
The above forces encryption for the submission service (remember that it’s not required for normal SMTP, it’s just desired).
your server tries to connect to others using TLS, but falls back to an unencrypted connection if the other side doesn’t support encryption;
other servers can connect to yours using TLS, but if they don’t attempt it then the connection will be unencrypted;
your users *must* use encryption (and authentication) to send mail through your server.
Restart your server, and check the logs: you should be getting mentions of TLS now. For instance, an email server starting an encrypted connection to yours looks like:
Sep 6 14:25:58 drax postfix/smtpd: Anonymous TLS connection established from lists.openbsd.org[22.214.171.124]: TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 (256/256 bits)