(Insert obligatory disclaimer about this being basic stuff, but this blog being — among other things — about documenting stuff I’m asked about/help others with at work, because it may be useful to other users, etc. etc.)
If you work, or have worked, as a sysadmin, you’ve probably had to do this in the past, but, even on your own system — if you were wise enough to select “use LVM” during installation — you may find yourself facing a common problem: needing to grow a filesystem, such as / (the root filesystem), /opt, etc..
First, in many cases, you may not actually need to grow an existing filesystem: if you will need to store a lot of data in a specific directory (let’s say /opt/data, but /opt is currently almost full), then simply creating a new partition and mounting it (possibly mounting it first in a temporary location so that you can move the existing directory into it) as (for the above example) /opt/data 1, may well solve your problem. In this case, by the way, you don’t even need to be using LVM. You’ve just freed space on /opt and (depending on the new partition’s size) you now have a lot more room to grow on /opt/data as well.
But, since we want to challenge ourselves at least a little bit, let’s say we really need to grow that filesystem. As a requisite, the current disk must be a Logical Volume (LV) of an existing Volume Group (VG), made up of one or more Physical Volumes (PVs). Let’s also assume the filesystem you want to grow is /opt, that it’s an ext4 filesystem 2, and that it’s an LV named “lv_opt“, which is part of a VG called “vg_group1“, which currently has no free/unused space (if it did have enough unused space for your needs, you could skip to step 4 below.)
The process has several steps:
1- Add the new disk (or disks, but let’s say it’s just one for simplicity’s sake) to the system. This may mean adding a physical disk to a machine, or adding a new drive to a VM, or the company’s storage team presenting a new LUN, or… Anyway, the details of the many possibilities go beyond the scope of this tutorial, so let’s just assume that you have a new disk on your machine, and that Linux sees it (possibly after a reboot, in the case of a non-hotpluggable physical disk), as something like /dev/sdc (which we’ll use for the rest of the examples.)
2- Create the new PV: if you’re going to add the entire sdc disk to the VG, just enter:
Otherwise, use fdisk to create a new partition inside it (sdc1), with the desired size, and change it to type “LVM” (it’s “8e” on fdisk). After exiting fdisk (saving the current configuration), enter (this is apparently not mandatory on modern Linux versions, but there’s no harm in it):
3- Add the new PV to the existing VG:
If you enter a “vgs” command now, you should see the added free space on the VG.
4- Extend the LV: if you want to add the entirety of the VG’s currently unused space, enter:
If, instead, you want to specify how much space to add (say, 10 GB):
Note that one version of the command uses “-l” (lower case L) and the other uses “-L“. That’s because one refers to extents, while the other refers directly to size.
Now the LV has been extended, but wait! You still need to…
5- Extend the filesystem itself: just enter:
Note that it’s a “2” in the command name, regardless of whether the filesystem is ext2, 3 or 4. This operation may take a while if the filesystem is large enough, but after it’s completed you should be able to see the new filesystem’s larger size (and added free space) with a “df” command.
Any questions or suggestions, feel free to add a comment.